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METHODS OF SMALL SLOW MOVING TARGETS DETECTION IN HEAVY
SEA CLUTTER
Mrachkovsky O., Cand. Of Sci (Technics), associate professor;
Pravda V., Cand. Of Sci (Technics), Professor; Turko S., postgraduate student
National Technical University of Ukraine Kyiv Polytechnic Instituteї, Kyiv, Ukraine

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144 ї . . 2013. 53
. .
2. Kelly E.J. An adaptive detection algorithm / E.J. Kelly // IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems. 1986. 2. p. 115-127.
3. Ward K.D. Sea clutter: scattering, the K distribution and radar performance / K.D. Ward, R.J.A. Tough, S. Watts. London: The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2006. 452 p.
4. Experimental validation of the compound Gaussian sea clutter model at sub-meter range resolution / [Carretero-Moya J., Gismero-Menoyo J., Asensio-Lopez A., Blanco-del-Campo A.]. Madrid: , 2009. 5 p.
5. Antipov I. Analysis of sea clutter data / I. Antipov.- Australia: Defendence science and technology organization, 1998. 40 p.
6. Antipov I. Statistical analysis of northern australian coastline sea clutter data / I. Antipov.- Edinburgh South Australia: DSTO Electronics and Surveillance Research Laboratory, 2001. 84 p.
7. Chan H.C. Radar sea-clutter at low grazing angles / H.C. Chan // IEE proceedings -Radar and Signal Processing. 1990. 2. p. 102112.
8. Chan C.H. Analysis of the north truro sea clutter data / C.H. Chan. Canada: Defence Research Establishment Ottawa, 1990. 52 p.
9. Yao K. A representation theorem and its applications to spherically invariant random processes / K. Yao // IEEE Trans.-IT. 1973. 5. p.600608.
10. Conte E. Asymptotically optimum radar detection in compound-Gaussian clutter / Conte E., Lops M., Ricci G. // IEEE Transactions onAerospace and Electronic Systems.-1995. 2. p. 617-625.
11. Gini F. Covariance matrix estimation for CFAR detection in heavy tailed clutter / F. Gini, M. Greco // Signal Processing. 2002. p. 1495-1507.
12. Younsi A. Performance of the adaptive normalized matched filter detector in compound-gaussian clutter with inverse gamma texture model / A. Younsi, M. Nadour // Progress In Electromagnetics Research. 2011. p. 21-38.
13. http:// soma.ece.mcmaster.ca/ipix/.
14. Herselman P.L. An analysis of X-band calibrated sea clutter and small boat reflectivity at medium-to-low grazing angles / Herselman P.L., Baker C.J., de Wind H.J. // International Journal of Navigation and Observation. 2008.14 p.
15. Herselman P.L. Analysis of calibrated sea clutter and boat reflectivity data at C- and X-band in south african coastal waters / P.L. Herselman, C.J. Baker // Radar and electronic warfare systemsGeneral science, engineering & technologyRadar and electronic warfare systemsGeneral science, engineering & technology. 200714 p.
16. http://www.csir.co.za/small_boat_detection/.
17. Herselman P.L. Improved covariance matrix estimation in spectrally inhomogeneous sea clutter with application to adaptive small boat detection / P.L. Herselman, H.J. de Wind // Radar, 2008 International Conference. 2008.- p. 94 99.
18. Panagopoulos S. Smalltarget detection in sea clutter / S. Panagopoulos, J.J. Soraghan // EEE Transactions on Geoscience and RemoteSensing. 2004. 7. p. 1355-1361.
19. Schleher D.C. Periscope detection radar / D.C. Schleher // Record of the IEEE international Radar Conference. 1995. p. 704-707.
20. McDonald M. Fast versus slow scan radar operation for coherent small target detection in sea clutter / M. McDonald, S. Lycett // IEE Proceedings on Radar, Sonar and Navigation. 2005. 6. p. 429-435.
21. Application of the Radon transform to detect small-targets in sea clutter / [Carretero-Moya J., Gismero-Menoyo J., Asensio-Lopez A., Blanco-del-Campo A.] // IET Radar, Sonar and Navigation. 2009. 2. p. 155-166.
22. Chen S.J. Small target detection in heavy sea clutter / Chen S.J., Kong L.J., Yang J.Y. // Progress In Electromagnetics Research B. 2012. p. 405-425.
ї 145
. . 2013. 53
. .
23. Lei Zhao Low-rank stap approach to radar target detection for sea clutter scenarios in radar seekers / Lei Zhao // Journal of Computational Information Systems. 2012. p. 459467.
24. Bo Zhang A new covariance matrix estimation method in compound Gaussian sea clutter / Bo Zhang, Feng Luo, Linrang Zhang, Gaogao Liu // Journal of Computational Information Systems. . p. 9353-9359.
25. Adaptive thresholding in Marine RADARs / [Alaee M., Firoozmand M., Amiri R., Sepahvand M.] // Iranian Journal of Electrical & Electronic Engineering. 2010. 3. p. 168174.
26. Farina A. Coherent radar detection in log-normal clutter / Farina A., Russo A., Studer
F.A. // IEE Proceedings F Communications, Radar and Signal Processing. 1986. 1. p. 39 53.
27. Davidson G. Wavelet detection of low observable targets within sea clutter / G. Davidson, H.D. Griffiths // RADAR. 2002. p. 238 242.
28. Waveform-agile tracking in heavy sea clutter / [Sira S.P., Papandreou-Suppappola A., Morrell D., Cochran D.] // Waveform Diversity and Design Conference. 2007. p. 372 376.
29. Hwang S.I. A new technique for the improved accuracy of small ship detection by synthetic aperture radar imagery / S.I. Hwang, K. Ouch // International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation. 2009. p. 3716 3719.
30. Anfinsen S.N. Improved target detection in polarimetric sar images by use of Mellin kind statistics / Anfinsen S.N., Tao D., Brekke C. // Proc. POLinSAR. 2011.4 p..
31. Tao D. An experimental study on ship detection based on the fixed-point polarimetric whitening filter / Tao D., Brekke C., Anfinsen S. // Proc. SPIE 8180, Image and Signal Processing for Remote Sensing XVII. 2011.9 p..
32. Sea-clutter modeling using a radial-basis-function neural network / [Hennessey G., Leung H., Drosopoulos A., Yip P.] // IEEE J. Oceanic Eng.. 2001. 3. p. 358-372.
33. Leung H. Signal detection using the radial basis function coupled map lattice / Leung H., Hennessey G., Drosopoulos A. // IEEE T. Neural Networ.. 2000. 11. p. 11331151.
34. RicoRamirez M. Classification of ground clutter and anomalous propagation using dual-polarization weather radar / M. Rico-Ramirez, I. Cluckie // IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 2008. 7. p. 1892-190.
35. Sea clutter reduction and target enhancement by neural networks in a marine radar system / [Vicen-Bueno R., Carrasco-Alvarez R., Rosa-Zurera M., Nieto-Borge J.C.] // Sensors. 2009. 3. p. 19131936.
36. Peng Wu A novel method of small target detection in sea clutter / Peng Wu, Jun Wang, Wenguang Wang // International Scholarly Research Network Signal Processing.
2011.10 p.
37. Ward K.D. Sea spikes and radar false alarm rates / Ward K.D., Tough R.J.A., Shepherd P.W. // 3rd EMrS DTC Technical Conference. 2006. 6 p..
38. Liu Jingya Radar sea clutter suppression and target indication with a spatial tracking filter / Liu Jingyao, Meng Huadong, Zhang Hao, Wang Xiqin // Tsinghua Science And Technology. 2010. 2. .
39. Jingyao Liu Radar sea clutter suppression and target detection with a-py filter / Jingyao Liu, Huadong Meng, Xiqin Wang // 9th International Conference on Signal Processing. 2008. p. 2376 2379.
40. Recursive errors-in-variables approach for ar parameter estimation from noisy observations. Application to radar sea clutter rejection / [Petitjean J., Diversi R. a.o.] // IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing. 2009. p. 3401 3404.
146 ї . . 2013. 53
. .
41. Wensink H.E. On parametric detection of small targets in sea clutter / H.E. Wensink // Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Information Fusion. 2000. p. 1724.
42. Jing Hu Detection of low observable targets within sea clutter by structure function based multifractal analysis / Jing Hu, Jianbo Gao, Kung Yao, Ungsik Kim // IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing. 2005. p. 709 712.
43. Target detection within sea clutter: a comparative study by fractal scaling analyses / [Jing Hu , Jianbo Gao, F.L. Posner a.o.]. West Lafayette: Purdue University, 2006. 40 p..
References
1. Rassieianiie radiovoln morem i obnaruzhenie maloskorostnukh obektov na yeho fone [Tekst]: dis...d-ra fiz.-mat. nauk: 01.04.03/ Lutsenko vladimir Ivanivich: NAN Ukriny, Institut radiofiziki i eliektroniki im. A. Ya. Usikova..-Kharkov, 2009.-455 l.
2. Kelly E.J. An adaptive detection algorithm / E.J. Kelly // IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems.- 1986.- 2.- p. 115-127.
3. Ward K.D. Sea clutter: scattering, the K distribution and radar performance / K.D. Ward, R.J.A. Tough, S. Watts.- London: The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2006.- 452 p.
4. Experimental validation of the compound Gaussian sea clutter model at sub-meter range resolution / [Carretero-Moya J., Gismero-Menoyo J., Asensio-Lopez A., Blanco-del-Campo A.].- Madrid: , 2009.- 5 p.
5. Antipov I. Analysis of sea clutter data / I. Antipov.- Australia: Defendence science and technology organization, 1998.- 40 p.
6. Antipov I. Statistical analysis of northern australian coastline sea clutter data / I. Antipov.- Edinburgh South Australia: DSTO Electronics and Surveillance Research Laboratory, 2001.- 84 p.
7. Chan H.C. Radar sea-clutter at low grazing angles / H.C. Chan // IEE proceedings -Radar and Signal Processing.- 1990.- 2.- p. 102-112.
8. Chan C.H. Analysis of the north truro sea clutter data / C.H. Chan.- Canada: Defence Research Establishment Ottawa, 1990.- 52 p.
9. Yao K. A representation theorem and its applications to spherically invariant random processes / K. Yao // IEEE Trans.-IT.- 1973.- 5.- p.600-608.
10. Conte E. Asymptotically optimum radar detection in compound-Gaussian clutter / Conte E., Lops M., Ricci G. // IEEE Transactions onAerospace and Electronic Systems.-1995.- 2.- p. 617-625.
11. Gini F. Covariance matrix estimation for CFAR detection in heavy tailed clutter / F. Gini, M. Greco // Signal Processing.- 2002.- p. 1495-1507.
12. Younsi A. Performance of the adaptive normalized matched filter detector in compound-gaussian clutter with inverse gamma texture model / A. Younsi, M. Nadour // Progress In Electromagnetics Research.- 2011.- p. 21-38.
13. http:// soma.ece.mcmaster.ca/ipix/.
14. Herselman P.L. An analysis of X-band calibrated sea clutter and small boat reflectivity at medium-to-low grazing angles / Herselman P.L., Baker C.J., de Wind H.J. // International Journal of Navigation and Observation.- 2008.-14 p.
15. Herselman P.L. Analysis of calibrated sea clutter and boat reflectivity data at C- and X-band in south african coastal waters / P.L. Herselman, C.J. Baker // Radar and electronic warfare systemsGeneral science, engineering & technologyRadar and electronic warfare systemsGeneral science, engineering & technology.- 2007.-14 p.
16. http://www.csir.co.za/small_boat_detection/.
17. Herselman P.L. Improved covariance matrix estimation in spectrally inhomogeneous sea clutter with application to adaptive small boat detection / P.L. Herselman, H.J. de Wind // Radar, 2008 International Conference.- 2008.- p. 94 - 99.
ї 147
. . 2013. 53
. .
18. Panagopoulos S. Small-target detection in sea clutter / S. Panagopoulos, J.J. Soraghan // EEE Transactions on Geoscience and RemoteSensing.- 2004.- 7.- p. 1355-1361.
19. Schleher D.C. Periscope detection radar / D.C. Schleher // Record of the IEEE international Radar Conference.- 1995.- p. 704-707.
20. McDonald M. Fast versus slow scan radar operation for coherent small target detection in sea clutter / M. McDonald, S. Lycett // IEE Proceedings on Radar, Sonar and Navigation.- 2005.- 6.- p. 429-435.
21. Application of the Radon transform to detect small-targets in sea clutter / [Carretero-Moya J., Gismero-Menoyo J., Asensio-Lopez A., Blanco-del-Campo A.] // IET Radar, Sonar and Navigation.- 2009.- 2.- p. 155-166.
22. Chen S.J. Small target detection in heavy sea clutter / Chen S.J., Kong L.J., Yang J.Y. // Progress In Electromagnetics Research B.- 2012.- p. 405-425.
23. Lei Zhao Low-rank stap approach to radar target detection for sea clutter scenarios in radar seekers / Lei Zhao // Journal of Computational Information Systems.- 2012.- p. 459467.
24. Bo Zhang A new covariance matrix estimation method in compound Gaussian sea clutter / Bo Zhang, Feng Luo, Linrang Zhang, Gaogao Liu // Journal of Computational Information Systems.- .- p. 9353-9359.
25. Adaptive thresholding in Marine RADARs / [Alaee M., Firoozmand M., Amiri R., Sepahvand M.] // Iranian Journal of Electrical & Electronic Engineering.- 2010.- 3.- p. 168174.
26. Farina A. Coherent radar detection in log-normal clutter / Farina A., Russo A., Studer F.A. // IEE Proceedings F Communications, Radar and Signal Processing.- 1986.- 1.- p. 39 - 53.
27. Davidson G. Wavelet detection of low observable targets within sea clutter / G. Davidson, H.D. Griffiths // RADAR.- 2002.- p. 238 - 242.
28. Waveform-agile tracking in heavy sea clutter / [Sira S.P., Papandreou-Suppappola A., Morrell D., Cochran D.] // Waveform Diversity and Design Conference.- 2007.- p. 372 - 376.
29. Hwang S.I. A new technique for the improved accuracy of small ship detection by synthetic aperture radar imagery / S.I. Hwang, K. Ouch // International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation.- 2009.- p. 3716 - 3719.
30. Anfinsen S.N. Improved target detection in polarimetric sar images by use of Mellin kind statistics / Anfinsen S.N., Tao D., Brekke C. // Proc. POLinSAR.- 2011.-4 p..
31. Tao D. An experimental study on ship detection based on the fixed-point polarimetric whitening filter / Tao D., Brekke C., Anfinsen S. // Proc. SPIE 8180, Image and Signal Processing for Remote Sensing XVII.- 2011.-9 p..
32. Sea-clutter modeling using a radial-basis-function neural network / [Hennessey G., Leung H., Drosopoulos A., Yip P.] // IEEE J. Oceanic Eng..- 2001.- 3.- p. 358-372.
33. Leung H. Signal detection using the radial basis function coupled map lattice / Leung H., Hennessey G., Drosopoulos A. // IEEE T. Neural Networ..- 2000.- 11.- p. 1133-1151.
34. Rico-Ramirez M. Classification of ground clutter and anomalous propagation using dual-polarization weather radar / M. Rico-Ramirez, I. Cluckie // IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing.- 2008.- 7.- p. 1892-190.
35. Sea clutter reduction and target enhancement by neural networks in a marine radar system / [Vicen-Bueno R., Carrasco-Alvarez R., Rosa-Zurera M., Nieto-Borge J.C.] // Sensors.- 2009.- 3.- p. 1913-1936.
36. Peng Wu A novel method of small target detection in sea clutter / Peng Wu, Jun Wang, Wenguang Wang // International Scholarly Research Network Signal Processing.-
2011.-10 p.
37. Ward K.D. Sea spikes and radar false alarm rates / Ward K.D., Tough R.J.A., Shepherd P.W. // 3rd EMrS DTC Technical Conference.- 2006.- 6 p..
148 ї . . 2013. 53
. .
38. Liu Jingya Radar sea clutter suppression and target indication with a spatial tracking filter / Liu Jingyao, Meng Huadong, Zhang Hao, Wang Xiqin // Tsinghua Science And Technology.- 2010.- 2.- .
39. Jingyao Liu Radar sea clutter suppression and target detection with a-py filter / Jingyao Liu, Huadong Meng, Xiqin Wang // 9th International Conference on Signal Processing.- 2008.- p. 2376 - 2379.
40. Recursive errors-in-variables approach for ar parameter estimation from noisy observations. Application to radar sea clutter rejection / [Petitjean J., Diversi R. a.o.] // IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing.- 2009.- p. 3401 - 3404.
41. Wensink H.E. On parametric detection of small targets in sea clutter / H.E. Wensink // Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Information Fusion.- 2000.- p. 17-24.
42. Jing Hu Detection of low observable targets within sea clutter by structure function based multifractal analysis / Jing Hu, Jianbo Gao, Kung Yao, Ungsik Kim // IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing.- 2005.- p. 709 - 712.
43. Target detection within sea clutter: a comparative study by fractal scaling analyses / [Jing Hu , Jianbo Gao, F.L. Posner a.o.].- West Lafayette: Purdue University, 2006.- 40 p..
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Mrachkovsky O., Pravda V., Turko S. Methods of small slow moving targets detection in heavy sea clutter. The search for methods of small targets detection by marine radars is carried out in this paper. As a result of the sources analysis three promising group of methods are selected - adaptive methods based on the clutter amplitude spherically invariant random process representation, methods based on non stohastic clutter representation and methods based on orthogonal transformations. Separately, neural networks and clutter polarization properties are noticed.
ї 149
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. .
Most of researches consider compound Gaussian distribution for high resolution sea clutter data modeling. Adaptive CFAR algoritm developed by Kelly for Gaussian clutter was extended for spherical invariant random process. This algorithm can detect target in compound Gaussian clutter and ensure CFAR detection if covariance matrix is precisely known. Many researches proposed different methods of covariance matrix estimating using information from cells adjacent with cell under test. Progress in this field is moving to finding less computation cost but more precise methods of covariance matrix estimation.
Further progress for small slow moving targets in heavy sea clutter detection can develop in 3 ways - improving covariance matrix estimation, exploiting not stochastic methods and finding best orthogonal transform for sea clutter Doppler spectrum describing.
Keywords: sea clutter, K-distribution, likelihood ratio, adaptive detection, covariance matrix, multilayer perceptron, neural networks, polarimetric decomposition, Pauli vector, polarimetric entropy, Hurst parameter, fractal analyses.
150 ї . . 2013. 53